Jesus walks on water. Mark 6:46-53

The literary structure of Mark 6:46-53

We have now covered Jesus feeding the 5,000, both the miracle of it, and also how it functioned as a sign which points to who Jesus is. Well, right after this we have our story for today – Jesus walking on water.

This story is somewhat similar to what happens in chapter 4 when Jesus calms the storm. And, as we’ll see, the question the disciples ask at the end of that story, “Who then is this that even wind and sea obey him?,” is answered even more clearly in our passage.

[In fact, this story in chapter 4 begins this section in Mark and our story today ends it in chapter 6, which we talk about next time.]

[Notice the parallels between these two stories: 1) Both are a water crossing – west to east; east to west. 2) Both begin with the same time frame – “when evening came.” 3) Jesus is not available – he is asleep; he is on land. 4) There is wind and struggle – the boat was taking on water; they can’t make headway. 5) The disciples are afraid – going to die; a ghost. 6) Both have the same phrase – “the wind ceased.” 7) Jesus demonstrates his power over the waters – calm sea; walks on the water and calm. 8) Jesus challenges the disciples’ fear – “Why are you so afraid?” “Do not be afraid.” 9) The disciples respond in similar ways – “filled with great awe” “utterly astounded”]

Here is a map of where this happens –

Galilee Jesus feeds 5000 2

There are two key things I would like to highlight from this story, a word of encouragement for us, and what we will look at first as we go through the passage –

Who Jesus is: Mark 6:46-53

46And after he had taken leave of them (the crowd), he went up on the mountain to pray.

Finally, Jesus gets some time away from the crowds, even if just for a few hours. And he spends it in prayer. (See also – 1:35, 14:35-39).

Jesus has just revealed himself, his identity as the Messiah and Son of God in the feeding of the 5,000, at least to those who had eyes to see it. And he’s about to reveal himself again to the 12.

47And when evening came, the boat was out on the sea, and he was alone on the land.

So the disciples are in the boat and he’s still on land.

48And he saw that they were making headway painfully, for the wind was against them.

Jesus, still on the mountain, saw the 12 struggling, just after it got dark. The disciples were several miles away. Was it a clear night so that Jesus could see them in the moonlight or is this supernatural? Not sure.

Unlike in chapter 4 and the calming of the storm, the 12 are not in mortal danger. But they are struggling mightily against a strong headwind and not getting anywhere.

And about the fourth watch of the night . . .

 This would be from 3:00 AM to 6:00 AM in the morning. Now Jesus saw them struggling earlier in the evening, but doesn’t do anything about it until the fourth watch, several hours later.

What does he do?

. . . he came to them, walking on the sea.

This is the miracle of our story. He’s not on another boat. He’s not walking in shallow water – there’s no illusion going on. He’s literally walking on top of the waves and the water!

Here we need to remember that in Hebrew thought the deep waters are connected to ideas of chaos, turmoil and evil. Indeed they are associated with Satan and judgment (e.g. Psalm 74:13-14, Revelation 12:9). And Yahweh is the one who has power and dominion over the waters (e.g. Psalm 93).

This was clearly demonstrated when God divided the Red Sea and allowed his people to escape Egypt. And when this happened, God is described as making a path through the sea. Psalm 77:19 says, “Your way was through the sea, your path through the great waters.” (See also Isaiah 43:16 and Job 9:8).

That Jesus walks on water, that is, he makes his path through the sea, shows that he too has complete dominion over the waters. Jesus is doing what only God can do, which demonstrates that Jesus is God’s Son, for like Father like son.

The story goes on –

He meant to pass before them . . .

It doesn’t seem likely that Jesus intended to leave the 12 behind while he went to the other side. No. The word for “pass before” is used in some key places in the Old Testament (LXX) for when God reveals himself. And this is in the background here. Let’s look at the most important example. Remember in Exodus 33 and 34 when Moses was on Mt Sinai? God, it says, “passed before him” – Exodus 34:6 (Also 33:19, 22). And when he does this he reveals himself to Moses. He can’t see God’s face because that would kill him, but he sees God’s back. So ‘passing before’ has to do with God’s self-revelation to people. (See also 1 Kings 19:11-12).

Well, here, like God his Father, Jesus is seeking to reveal himself to them; his identity as God’s Son in walking on the water.

49but when they saw him walking on the sea they thought it was a ghost, and cried out, 50for they all saw him and were terrified.

So Jesus is trying to reveal himself, but the disciples don’t get it, but are rather terrified thinking that they’re seeing a ghost or sea demon on the water. We get our word “phantom” from the word used here for ghost.

But immediately he spoke to them and said, “Take heart; it is I. Do not be afraid.”

So Jesus comforts them by telling them that it’s him and encouraging them not to be afraid. But there’s more going on here. The phrase “It is I” (ego eimi) is the way that God’s name “Yahweh” is translated into Greek – Exodus 3:14. And when God passed before Moses on the mountain, a key part of God’s revealing of himself was saying his name – Exodus 33:19. So Jesus here is saying the divine name in relation to himself,  or more specifically – I am Yahweh’s Son. He is God’s Son in human form. This is who Jesus is.

51And he got into the boat with them, and the wind ceased.

This is what happened when Jesus calmed the storm in chapter 4. Both have the phrase “the wind ceased.” Jesus delivers the 12 from the storm.

And they were utterly astounded, 52for they did not understand about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened.

They couldn’t believe what just happened. As we saw before, if they had gotten what Jesus was trying to communicate in the feeding of the 5,000 – they would’ve known that Jesus is God’s Son. And as such he’s perfectly capable of walking on the waters.

Our story ends with v. 53 –

53When they had crossed over, they came to land at Gennesaret and moored to the shore.

They made it safely to the other side and back onto land.

Now let’s talk big picture for a moment. As we have gone through this perhaps you’ve noticed that our story today, and the story of the feeding of the 5,000 go together. The feeding of the 5,000 which we saw is reminiscent of the feeding of Israel in the wilderness is paired with this water crossing which has parallels to the crossing of the Red Sea.

[Parallels between this and the Red Sea crossing include:

  • God came from his mountain – Habakkuk 3:3. Jesus came from a mountain to the 12.
  • The Israelites crossed the sea at night, early morning – Exodus 14:21, 24, 27. This story takes place at night and early morning.
  • There was a storm involved – Exodus 14:24-25; Psalm 77:17-18. There was a storm involving strong wind.
  • God is described as making a path through the sea – Psalm 77:19-20; Isaiah 43:16. Jesus walks on the water to his disciples.
  • God came for the salvation of his people – Habakkuk 3:13. Jesus came to deliver his disciples.]

So in these two events Jesus is symbolically reenacting the story of Israel’s salvation, although in reverse order; God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt and his caring for them in the wilderness. (It’s not in reverse order if this is seen as the crossing of the Jordan into the land of Israel, which itself was a reenactment of the Red Sea crossing).

In this light, Jesus can be seen as showing forth his identity as the  Savior of God’s people. Just as God delivered Israel and cared for them, so Jesus as God’s Son is the one who is bringing about God’s kingdom salvation for the remnant of God’s people. This is who Jesus is.

Let me end with –

A word of encouragement for us

 This story can teach us a few things about going through trials ourselves.

  • Just as with the disciples, we will go through deep waters and experience strong headwinds in life, both as individuals  and as a congregation.
  • Just as with the disciples, Jesus sees us and knows our struggles. Even though he seems far away or absent, he always knows what’s going on in our lives.
  • Just as with the disciples,  he lets us go through trials. Jesus saw the disciples struggling but waited several hours before he came. We have to remember that trials are meant for our good. God is working in us to cause us to grow in our character and relationship with him. Hebrews 12:11 says, “For the moment all discipline seems painful rather than pleasant, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it.”
  • Just as with the disciples, Jesus comes to be with us and tells us to take heart, don’t fear. He gets into the boat with us in the midst of our struggle. As Isaiah 43:1-3 says, “Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and through the rivers, they shall not overwhelm you . . .. For I am the Lord your God, the Holy One of Israel, your Savior.”
  • Just as with the disciples, Jesus reveals himself as Son of God and Savior. At the right time he delivers us from the wind and storm; from the clutches of the deep waters. Peter gives these comforting words in 1 Peter 5:10 – “And after you have suffered a little while, the God of all grace, who has called you to his eternal glory in Christ, will himself restore, confirm, strengthen, and establish you.”

Jesus is our one teacher. Matthew 23:10

I want to share with you today on how Jesus is our one teacher, and we’re beginning in Matthew 23. In the midst of a blistering critique of the Scribes and the Pharisees in this passage, Jesus says something that is everywhere else assumed throughout the whole New Testament. And I want to highlight this for you this morning and talk about what it means for us.

It’s found in v. 10 where Jesus says to his disciples,

“you have one teacher, the Messiah”

So Jesus is saying that he is our one teacher. Well –

What does this mean?

For one thing it means that Jesus teaches us how to interpret the Bible. And he’s clear that it’s about him.

First he tells us that his life, death and resurrection fulfill the Old Testament story-line. After his resurrection, Jesus said to his disciples in Luke 24:44, “. . . everything written about me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.” Jesus is telling us that the Old Testament has the character of promise to it and his coming is the fulfillment of all its promises.

One simple example of this is the prophecy of Micah 5:2. It says that the Messiah will be born in Bethlehem. And Jesus is, in fact, born in that city.

Second, Jesus tells us that his teaching on God’s will fulfills or perfects Old Testament teaching on this. As he says in Matthew 5:17, “I have not come to abolish the Law and the prophets, but to fulfill them.” Jesus is telling us that Old Testament teaching about God’s will for our lives is preparation for his teaching, which fulfills it.

After our verse, Jesus goes on in Matthew 5 to give several examples where he says, “you have heard that it was said to those of old (that is, by Moses), but I say to you . . ..” And the teaching that follows fulfills or perfects what Moses taught. One example of this is the topic of loving enemies. The Old Testament allows you to hate your enemies, at least your nation’s enemies. But Jesus tells us in Matthew 5:44 to love our enemies and he gives no exceptions. It includes our nation’s enemies. Jesus raises the standard. So we really do need to check to see what Jesus has to say about any topic that we are studying in the Bible.

Also let’s note that the rest of the New Testament points back to Jesus. That is, it points back to what is revealed about him in the Gospels. After all, Jesus commissioned the apostles to preach the good news of his coming and to teach new disciples “all that I have commanded you” – Matthew 28:20. And this is what the New Testament writers do. They point people back to Jesus’ life, death and resurrection and his teaching about God’s will.

So Jesus really is the center of the whole Bible. It all leads to him and focuses on him. The Old Testament points forward to him and the New Testament points back to him. And we can understand it by seeing how it all connects up with and fits together with him. Jesus really does teach us the right framework for how to interpret the Bible.

Well, to have Jesus as our one teacher also means that no one has the right to set aside what Jesus teachesAs we just saw, Jesus said that we are to teach people “to obey all that I have commanded you”- Matthew 28:20. Not part, not some, not most – but all! Every bit of it.

No one can override Jesus. He has all authority in heaven and on earth. If someone says, but Moses said this, or our government says this, or this doesn’t apply anymore – and it goes against what Jesus says – then we stay with Jesus. We cannot take away from what Jesus and his apostles teach us.

And finally, to say that Jesus is our one teacher means that no one has the right to add to what Jesus teaches. There are two ways that this typically happens.

First, we add on our own human opinions and rules and make them binding on others. We’re all really good at this, we have lots of opinions and convictions, which is fine – the problem comes when we require everyone to follow our views, that go beyond Scripture, to be accepted as a good Christian.

Jesus condemns this in talking to the Pharisees, who were really good at this, and he calls it “teaching as doctrines the commandments of men”- Mark 7:7, as opposed to teaching as doctrines the commandments of God.

This has happened a lot in church history. Perhaps its Catholics saying that everyone has to submit to the Pope. Or maybe its Anabaptists arguing over whether buttons or hooks and eyes are required to be faithful to God.

Second, some try to add a supposed new revelation that supersedes Jesus and what he has said, in part or in whole. We know that there are various groups and cults that have been formed that make this claim, leading people astray. Mormonism would be an example here.

But Jesus teaches us to “be on guard” against false messiahs and prophets. And he tells us that we are not to believe them – Mark 13:21-23. No one has the right to add to Jesus’ teaching.

Now, if we ask –

Why is Jesus our one teacher?

The scriptural answer is clear: As God’s Son, Jesus gives us the fullest and final revelation of God.

John 1:17-18 says, “The law indeed was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus the Messiah. No one has ever seen God. It is God the only Son, who is close to the Father’s heart, who has made him known.” Notice the contrast with the Old Testament in John’s reference to the Law. Moses gave a true and trustworthy revelation of God and he is considered the greatest of prophets. But John is teaching us that the Word made flesh gives us the complete and perfect revelation of God. For Jesus is not just a prophet, he is God’s Son.

Remember Philip’s question to Jesus, “Show us the Father?” Jesus responded, “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father” – John 14:9. Jesus gives us the fullest and final revelation of God.

A final question –

What does this mean for us?

We are to believe that Jesus is the promised one, just as he taught us. He is indeed the Messiah. As Jesus implores in Mark 1:15 – “believe in the good news” What good news? That the time of fulfillment has come – that he is here, the Messiah and Son of God. His life, death and resurrection fulfill the promises.

Also we are to follow Jesus’ teaching on God’s will for our lives. He is the perfect revelation of God’s will to us and this is how we are to live.

  • Jesus asked, “Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and not do what I tell you?” – Luke 6:46. Can you hear the confusion in this? If I’m your Lord, why don’t you listen to me?? Something is wrong here. These things don’t add up. If you call Jesus your Lord then you must obey him.
  • Jesus also said, “If you love me, you will keep my commandments” – John 14:15. If you’re not obeying Jesus you don’t love him. No matter what your feelings about Jesus might be. If you claim to love Jesus then you must do what he says.

And, of course, if we are to believe and obey his teaching, we need to learn what Jesus teaches us. Biblical illiteracy is a plague today. And I’m not just talking about among unbelievers in the world where this is expected. Right? What do they care? I’m talking about in the church. Even in churches that value and seek to follow God’s word. And more specifically, I believe we are functionally illiterate when it comes to understanding Jesus’ teaching.

  • Where is our love for his teaching? He became human to show us God’s way. Yet we put so little effort into understanding what he says.
  • Where is our love for Scripture? Where is our hunger and thirst to understand it? Are we curious? Do we ask questions?
  • Or are we apathetic. It doesn’t matter, I know the basics. Or I’ll leave it to my pastor or to my favorite celebrity preacher.

No. We need to be like the Bereans in Acts 17:11. After Paul taught them it says, “they received the word with all eagerness, examining the Scripture daily to see if these things were so.” Notice their eagerness. Notice their examination of Scripture and that they did this daily.

I want to encourage you this morning, in the words of Jesus in Mark 4:24, “Pay close attention to what you hear.” (NLT) Or as we would say it today since this is all written down “Pay close attention to what you read.” Pay close attention to all the Scriptures – learn them, examine them, meditate on them – and especially pay close attention to what Jesus teaches.